Document Type : Research Paper


Gulf College, Oman


Abstract This study investigated the factors influencing student learning outcomes as perceived by teacher-participants. The mixed methods approach was utilised to find out the teachers’ personal views on the instructional challenges faced by students in attaining the desired learning outcomes. A structured questionnaire adopted from the University of Waterloo and a focused group discussion were employed to collect data. Among the three instructional challenges namely cognitive, behavioural, and experiential, the results showed that behavioural challenges are the foremost problem that hinder students in achieving learning outcomes. This is manifested in terms of their interest towards learning, classroom participation, excessive absences, and diligence. It is concluded that students encountered such challenges due to several factors: 1) students’ capability which is generic to all students, 2) mastery of the module which is common to all, and 3) students’ interest, engagement, and prior knowledge which are typical to all students. The implications for further research and directions were discussed.