Document Type : Research Paper


University of Gonabad, Iran


The main purpose of the present study is to find out which type of modality (i.e., reading, listening, or reading while listening) affects second language (L2) learners’ cognitive processing of single words more efficiently. In order to achieve the aim of the present study, a semantic decision task was employed. In this task, participants saw a pair of words presented one after the other and were asked to decide whether or not the target word was affectively related to the preceding word. The participants were 150 Iranian EFL learners who were randomly assigned to three equal groups (each consisting of 50 participants), namely, reading, listening, and reading while listening. The data showed that the type of modality has a significant effect on the cognitive processing of single words in L2 education. More specifically, it was found that multimodality (i.e., reading while listening) is more effective than single modality (i.e., listening or reading) in the cognitive processing of L2 single words.